В настоящей статье авторы анализируют понятие инвестиционного договора в соответствии с российским законодательством и судебной практикой для целей надлежащей правовой классификации возникающих гражданских правоотношений, а также демонстрируют практическое применение сделанных выводов на примере договора лизинга.
правовая квалификация; инвестиционный договор; инвестиционная деятельность; гражданско-правовой договор; лизинг.
The objectives of the legal qualification of the contractual type
The principle of contract’s freedom provides participants with unlimited civil law, in fact, an opportunity to make a right under the law, as well as unnamed contracts (art. 421 (1–3) of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, hereinafter — the Civil Code). However, this freedom there is a flip side, when lack of regulation and the mixing of legal and economic components of civil relations, the illusion of self-sufficiency of such a legal structure that has no legally significant individualizing the symptoms.
Legal qualification has always had a purely utilitarian purposes: to determine the legal standards to be applied directly or by analogy, select the necessary and sufficient protection and so on. In other words, a consequence of the recognition agreement unnamed is the regulation of relations arising on the basis of the analogy of the law or the law (art. 6 of the Civil Code). When it comes to mixed contract, which combines elements of well-known legal structures is necessary and sufficient for the application of the relevant parts of the rules of the relevant contracts, unless otherwise stated in the agreement of the parties or the essence of the mixed contract.
Thus, before you accept the contract of special and (or) it is not a named legal structure, you need to understand is hidden somewhere for a special name already known type of contract or some of its elements.
In this connection it is interesting to pay attention to the issue of investment contracts in the Russian legislation, illustrated by a simple example, it is not the idea that before the invention of a new model contract must first carefully examine the existing legal structures and provided that the legal possibilities.
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2. Commercial Law: Textbook for high schools / Min. ed. prof. V. S. Martemjanov. Moscow, 1994. T. 2. P. 170 (author of the chapter — O. N. Kondrashkova).
3. Basyrov I. I. The concept and features of the investment agreement (contract) // «Lawyer». 2008. № 2; Guschin V. V., Ovchinnikov A. A. Investment Law. Moscow: Penguin Books, 2006. P. 688; Investment Law: Teaching and practical guide / I. Z. Farkhutdinov, V. A. Trapeznikov. M, 2006.
4. Antipov O. Legal regulation of investment activities (analysis of the theoretical and practical problems). Moscow, 2007.
5. Basyrov I. I. The concept and features of the investment agreement (contract) // Lawyer. 2008. № 2.
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7. Sayfulova L. G. Contract equity in housing: Thesis. Samara, 2001. P. 84.
8. A similar conclusion was reached by E. V. Laputeva: «investment contract can not exist as a separate type of contract — it involves various types of civil contracts, a common feature of which is the regulation of investment activity» (Laputeva E. Improvement of contractual relations in the area of housing. M., 2003. P. 86).
9. Semilyutina N. G. Investment and financial services market: problems of legal regulation // Journal of Russian law. 2003. No. 2. P. 30.
10. Basyrov I. I. The nature of the investment agreement (contract) // Lawyer. 2009. No. 3; V. Anokhin. Business law. Moscow, 1999. P. 259.
11. Russian Business Law / Min. Ed. I. V. Yershov, G. D. Otnyukova. Moscow, 2006. P. 657 (the author — G. D. Otnyukova).
12. Biryukov D. Some aspects of the legal regulation of foreign investments made in the form of investments in the Russian Federation // Economy and Law. 2005. No. 4. P. 122.
13. Kolchin S. L. The right to land as a factor in attracting foreign investments into the Russian economy: Thesis. Moscow, 2001. P. 65–66.
14. Platonov N. L. Legislative regulation of foreign investment in Russia // The Citizen and the Law. 2000. No. 6. P. 35–38.
15. Boguslavsky M. M. Foreign investment: legal regulation. M., 1996. C. 5.
16. Similar position with regard to the determination of the forms of investment activity are shared by other authors (Bogatirev A. G. Investment Law. M., 1992. P. 41–42.
17. Voznesenskaya N. N. Foreign investment: Russian and international experience (comparative legal commentary. M., 2001. P. 54–65.
18. Order FAS of the North Caucasus region, dated 21.02.2005, case No. A53-12157/2003-S6–46, order of FAS of the East Siberian region, dated 31.08.2005. case No. A33-27269/04-S2-F02-4200/05-C2, order of FAS of the North Caucasus region, dated 27.08.2008, case No. A32-15975/2007–36/391, act of FAS of the North-West region, dated 30.12.2009, case No. A70-4018/2009.
19. Resolution of FAS of Moscow Region, dated 03.02.2005, No. KG-A40/39–05, case No. A40-26215/03-6-159.