his article compares Russian and USA mediation regulations and explores what the new field of mediation education in Russia can be learnt from the USA. The autor explores the history of developing and the place of the new Russian mediation law and how it fits within the Russian legal system. The article examines crosscultural perspectives of teaching mediation and explains the current goals of mediation courses into the USA and Russia, attempts to understand the system of teaching mediation in different law systems and explains the current goals of these courses.
mediation; mediation courses; mediation education; Russian mediation; US mediation
This article compares Russia and U.S.A. (USA, US) mediation regulations and explores what the new field of mediation education in Russia can learn from the USA. This article also explores the place of the new Russian mediation law and how the new law fits within the Russian legal system. The article considers questions about special habits of Russian people that can transform the order of applying or approaches to solving the problems into mediation. In particular, this article will review the attractive features of mediation that work in the USA legal field: the confidentiality of the process, the low costs involved, the short time it takes to settle the dispute, the interest-based procedure, and discuss which of these features can work in the Russian legal field as well. Russian cultural values will play a significant role in that question.
This article explores cross-cultural perspectives of teaching mediation and explains the current goals of mediation courses into the USA and Russia, attempts to understand the system of teaching Mediation in different law circumstances and explains the current goals of mediation courses into the USA and Russia. These cross-cultural perspectives will reveal some special and core techniques that the teachers of mediation use in the U.S.A. that Russian teachers of mediation can successfully borrow and apply in Russia.
II. Mediation law and regulations in Russia
1. Historical preview
The institute of mediation officially is relatively new in the Russian Federation.
The Federal Laws 193-FZ "About the alternative dispute resolution process involving a mediator (the mediation procedure)" and 194-FZ "On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation in connection with the adoption of the Federal Law "About the alternative dispute resolution process involving a mediator (the mediation procedure)" were signed by President Medvedev and accepted on 27 July 2010. These Mediation Laws came into force on January 1, 2011 .
1. http://www.mediacia.com/en/news/103.html (Official Site of The Center of Mediation and The Law, Center for Mediation and Law is a leading Russian organization dedicated to the introduction and spread of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and mediation. Laws on Mediation passed in the Russian Parliament).
2. http://arbimed.ru/istoriya_mediacii (official site of Mediators league, that working in the Russian Federation and combines professionals with extensive practical experience in mediation. History of mediation).
3. Judgment of Solomon — Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judgment_of_Solomon (last visited May 4, 2012)
4. http://arbimed.ru/istoriya_mediacii, supra note 2.
5. Volchkov V. Rykovodstvo dla krestian. Sbornik deistvyuwix yzakonenii, kasauwihsa obwestv. ih upr. i obyazannostei sel i volost. doljnostnih lic i nij. chinov. [Guidelines for the peasants. Collection of existing statutes relating to the companies they control, and responsibilities of village and township officers and lower ranks] 256. Moscow, 1880.
6. http://arbimed.ru/istoriya_mediacii, supra note 2
7. http://www.fssprus.ru/functions/ (official Website of The Federal Bailiff Service of Russia)
8. http://government.ru/power/101/ (official Website of the Government of the Russian Federation, the executive branch)
9. http://pda.arbitr.ru/press-centr/press_arb_sud/46476.html (official site of The Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, official data)
10. http://www.ssrf.ru/print_page.php?id=827&newid=1169; http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D1%83%D0%B4%D0%B5%D0%B1%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D1%81%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%B0_%D0%A0%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%B8 (Council of Judges of the Russian Federation). So the Federal Service of Court Bailiffs was overload.
11. http://docs.pravo.ru/document/view/5011/ (online version of Russian legislation)
12. Hanan M. Isaacs, M.A., J.D., The modern age of arbitration began in the 1920’s, with Congress’s passage of the Federal Arbitration Act “FAA”), http://www.hananisaacs.com/Press-Room/Modern-A-D-R-Practice-Navigating-Between-a-Rock-and-a-Hard-Place.shtml.
13. Musin, Kropachev, Russian law in brief — digest for foreign investors 130, 132 (Jane Picker ed., 2011).
14. Arbitration Procedure Code of the Russian Federation (APC RF),
15. The Civil procedure Code of the Russian Federatoin (CPC RF),
16. The Federal Law “On the Courts of Arbitration in the Russian Federation” № 102-FZ.
17. The Federal Laws № 193-FZ “About the alternative dispute resolution process involving a mediator (the mediation procedure)” and № 194-FZ “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation in connection with the adoption of the Federal Law “About the alternative dispute resolution process involving a mediator (the mediation procedure)” explains all the rules and procedures that the economical and civil court have to be ruled by in case of using ADR.
18. http://www.consultant.ru/popular/apkrf/9_18.html (online version of Russian legislation).
19. http://expert.ru/2011/07/21/osparivanie-reshenij-karmannyih-tretejskih-sudov/ (Expert.ru, Russia and the world, analytical journal about law and politics)
20. http://www.arbitrage.spb.ru/zakon/APK.htm (Law journal “Arbitral tribunal”).
21. Federal’nyi Zakon RF o Treteiskih Sudah v Rossiiskoi Federacii [Federal Law “On arbitration courts in the Russian Federation”], Rossiiskaya Gazeta [Ros. Gaz.] July 27, 2002.
22. Federal’nyi Zakon RF ob Alternativnoi Procedure Uregulirovania Sporov s Ychastiem Posrednika (Procedure Mediacii) [Federal Law “About the alternative dispute resolution process involving a mediator (the mediation procedure)”], Rossiiskaia Gazeta [Ros. Gaz.] July 30, 2010.
23. Federal’nyi Zakon RF ob Alternativnoi Procedure Uregulirovania Sporov s Ychastiem Posrednika (Procedure Mediacii), supra note 27.
24. Prikaz Minobrnayki RF № 187 Ob ytverjdenii programmi podgotovki mediatorov [Order of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation № 187 On approval of training programs for mediators], Rossiiskaia Gazets [Ros. Gaz.] March 23, 2011.
25. http://imright.ru/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Codexmediatorum1.pdf (PDF version of Code of Mediatos of Russia)
26. Prikaz Minobrnayki RF № 187, supra note 47.
27. Carrie J. Menkel-Meadow Dispute Resolution: beyond the adversarial model 43 (2005).
28. Michael T. Colatrella, Jr., “Court’Performed” Mediation in the People’s Republic of China: A Proposed Model to Improve the United States Federal District Courts’ Mediation Program, Ohio state Journal on Dispute Resolution, Vol. 15, 409 (2002).
29. Dispute-Solutions.com, Arbitration & Mediation Glossary http://www.dispute-solutions.com/resources/arbitrationmediation-glossary/ (last visited May 4, 2012).
30. Mediation Training Institute International, State Requirements for Mediators, State Mediator Rosters and Qualifications, http://www.mediationworks.com/medcert3/staterequirements.htm (last visited May 4, 2012).
31. New Jersey Association of Professional Mediators, Mediation: The Right Way To Resolve Disputes, How to Become a Mediator, http://www.njapm.org/content/how-become-mediator (last visited May 4, 2012).
32. Model Standards of Conduct for Mediators, September 2005 http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/dispute/documents/model_standards_conduct_april2007.authcheckdam.pdf (last visited May 4, 2012).
33. Uniform Mediation Act by National Conference Of Commissioners On Uniform State Laws, 10/3/01 http://www.mediate.com/articles/umafinalstyled.cfm (last visited May 4, 2012).
34. Ron Kelly, California’s Mediation Code, http://www.mediate.com/articles/ab939.cfm (last visited May 4, 2012).
35. Code of Civil Procedure Section 1775-1775.15, http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/displaycode?section=ccp&group=01001-02000&file=1775-1775.15 (last visited May 4, 2012).
36. http://www.kommersant.ru/Doc-rss/490891 (Russian Political and Analytical Weekly Magazine).
37. http://orenburg.mid.ru/history_03.html (official site of Russian Foreign Ministry representative in Orenburg).
38. Those Unpredictable Russians, The Lewiston Daily Sun (October 28, 1957), http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1928&dat=19571028&id=DEgpAAAAIBAJ&sjid=LWgFAA
39. AAIBAJ &pg=1208,5595485
40. Nadja Kwapil, Russian Culture — Between Europe and Asia, Global View Magazine (March 1, 2010, 22:40), http://globalviewmagazine.wordpress.com/2010/03/01/russia-%E2%80%93-between-europe-and-asia/
41. http://www.polit.ru/article/2010/09/02/specialway/ (Russian Portal of Political Analytics)
42. http://www.consultant.ru/law/interview/shamlikashvili2.html (Russian Legal portal).
43. http://www.rusaying.ru/russkie-posloviczy-i-pogovorki-nah/244-xudoj-mir-luchshe-dobroj-ssory.html (Russian Portal of Proverbs and Sayings).